The concise history of English literature, the Elizabethan Period

 

elizabethan period literature

The Elizabethan era is the epoch in the Tudor period of the history of England during the reign of Queen Elizabeth I (–). Historians often depict it as the golden age in English history. The symbol of Britannia (a female personification of Great Britain) was first used in , and often thereafter, to mark the Elizabethan age as a renaissance that inspired national pride through Followed by: Jacobean era. Dec 22,  · The concise history of English literature, the Elizabethan Period. Taroudant - “The concise history of English literature” is a delightful article that will be published in a series of short Author: Larbi Arbaoui. A summary of Elizabethan Literature in 's Queen Elizabeth I. Learn exactly what happened in this chapter, scene, or section of Queen Elizabeth I and what it means. Perfect for acing essays, tests, and quizzes, as well as for writing lesson plans.


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The Elizabethan era is the epoch in the Tudor period of the history of England during the reign of Queen Elizabeth I — Historians often depict it as the golden age in English history. The symbol of Britannia a female personification of Great Britain was first used inand often thereafter, to mark the Elizabethan age as a renaissance that inspired national pride through classical ideals, international expansion, and naval triumph over Spain.

The historian John Guy argues that "England was economically healthier, more expansive, and more optimistic under the Tudors " than at any time in a thousand years. This "golden age" [2] represented the apogee of the English Renaissance and saw the flowering of poetry, music and literature.

The era is most famous for theatreas William Shakespeare and many others composed plays that broke free of England's past style of theatre. It was an age of exploration and expansion abroad, while back at home, the Protestant Reformation became more acceptable to the people, most certainly after the Spanish Armada was repelled.

It was also the end of the period when England was a separate realm before its royal union with Scotland. The Elizabethan age contrasts sharply with the previous and following reigns.

It was a brief period of internal peace between the English Reformation and the religious battles between Protestants and Catholics and then the political battles between parliament and the monarchy that engulfed the remainder of the seventeenth century. England was also well-off compared to the other nations of Europe, elizabethan period literature.

The Italian Renaissance had come to an elizabethan period literature under the weight of Spanish domination of the peninsula. France was embroiled in its own religious battles that were temporarily settled in by a policy of tolerating Protestantism with the Edict of Nantes. In part because of this, but also because the English had been expelled from their last outposts on the continent by Spain's terciosthe centuries-long conflict between France and England was largely suspended for most of Elizabeth's reign.

The one great rival was Spain, elizabethan period literature, with whom England clashed both in Europe and the Americas in elizabethan period literature that exploded into the Anglo-Spanish War of — An attempt by Philip II of Spain to invade England with the Spanish Armada in was famously defeated, but the tide of war turned against England with an unsuccessful expedition to Portugal and the Azores, the Drake-Norris Expedition of Thereafter, Spain provided some support for Irish Catholics in a debilitating rebellion against English rule, and Spanish naval and land forces inflicted a series of reversals against English offensives.

This drained both the English Exchequer and economy that had been so carefully restored under Elizabeth's prudent guidance. English commercial and territorial expansion would be limited until the signing of elizabethan period literature Treaty elizabethan period literature London the year following Elizabeth's death.

Elizabethan period literature during this period had a centralised, well-organised, and effective government, elizabethan period literature, largely a result of the reforms of Henry VII and Henry VIIIas well as Elizabeth's harsh punishments for any dissenters. Economically, the country began to benefit greatly from the new era of trans-Atlantic trade and persistent theft elizabethan period literature Spanish treasure.

The Victorian era and the early 20th century idealised the Elizabethan era. In popular culture, the image of those adventurous Elizabethan seafarers was embodied in the films of Errol Flynn. In response and reaction to this hyperbole, modern historians and biographers have tended to take a more dispassionate view of the Tudor period.

Elizabethan England was not particularly successful in a military sense during the period, but it avoided major defeats and built up a powerful navy. On balance, it can be said that Elizabeth provided the country with a long period of general if not total peace and generally increased prosperity due in large part to stealing from Spanish treasure ships, raiding settlements with low defenses, and selling African slaves, elizabethan period literature.

Having inherited a virtually bankrupt state from previous reigns, elizabethan period literature frugal policies restored fiscal responsibility. With taxes lower than other European countries of the period, the economy expanded; though the wealth was distributed with wild unevenness, there was clearly more wealth to go around at the end of Elizabeth's reign than at the beginning.

The Elizabethan Age was also an age of plots and conspiracies, frequently political in nature, elizabethan period literature, and often involving the highest levels of Elizabethan society. That would be a prelude to the religious recovery of England for Catholicism. Inthe Ridolfi plot was thwarted.

Inthe Throckmorton Plot was elizabethan period literature, after Francis Throckmorton confessed his involvement in a plot to overthrow the Queen and restore the Catholic Church in England. Another major conspiracy elizabethan period literature the Babington Plot — the event which most directly led to Mary's execution, the discovery of which involved a double agentGilbert Giffordacting under the direction of Francis Walsinghamthe Queen's highly effective spy master.

The Essex Rebellion of has a dramatic element, as just before the uprising, supporters of the Earl of Essex, among them Charles and Joscelyn Percy younger brothers of the Earl of Northumberlandpaid for a performance of Richard II at the Globe Theatreapparently with the goal of stirring public ill will towards the monarchy.

In the Bye Plot oftwo Catholic priests planned to kidnap King James and hold him in the Tower of London until he agreed to be more tolerant towards Catholics, elizabethan period literature. It was discovered in time with eight conspirators executed, elizabethan period literature Guy Fawkeswho became the iconic evil traitor in English lore. Elizabeth made naval strength a high priority. The Navy yards were leaders in technical innovation, and the captains devised new tactics, elizabethan period literature.

Parker argues that the full-rigged ship was one of the greatest technological advances of the century and permanently transformed naval warfare. In English shipwrights introduced designs, first demonstrated in the "Dreadnaught", that allowed the ships to sail faster and maneuver better and permitted heavier guns.

When Spain finally decided to invade and conquer England it was a fiasco. Superior English ships and seamanship foiled the invasion and led to the destruction of the Spanish Armada inmarking the high point of Elizabeth's reign. Technically, the Armada failed because Spain's over-complex strategy required coordination between the invasion fleet and the Spanish army on shore.

Moreover, the poor design of the Spanish cannons meant they were much slower in reloading in a close-range battle. Spain and France still had stronger fleets, but England was catching up. Parker has speculated on the dire consequences if the Spanish had landed their invasion army in He argues that the Spanish army was larger, more experienced, better-equipped, elizabethan period literature, more confident, and had better financing.

The English defenses, on the other hand, were thin and outdated; England had too few soldiers and elizabethan period literature were at best elizabethan period literature partially trained. Spain had chosen England's weakest link and probably could have captured London in a week. Parker adds that a Catholic uprising in the north and in Ireland could have brought total defeat. The discoveries of Christopher Columbus electrified all of western Europe, especially maritime powers like England.

Cabot sailed in and reached Newfoundland. Spain was well established in the Americas, while Portugal, in union with Spain fromelizabethan period literature, had an ambitious global empire in Africa, Asia and South America. France was exploring North America. Martin Frobisher landed at Frobisher Bay on Baffin Island in August ; He returned inclaiming it in Queen Elizabeth's name, elizabethan period literature, and in a third voyage tried but failed to found a settlement in Frobisher Bay.

From toSir Francis Drake circumnavigated the globe. John's together with all land within two hundred leagues to the north and south of it. Inthe queen granted Sir Walter Raleigh a charter for the colonisation of Virginia ; it was named in her honour. Raleigh and Elizabeth sought both immediate riches and a base for privateers to raid the Spanish treasure fleets, elizabethan period literature.

Raleigh sent others to found the Roanoke Colony ; it remains a mystery why the settlers all disappeared. It established trading posts, which in later centuries evolved into British Indiaelizabethan period literature, on the coasts of what is now India and Bangladesh. Larger scale colonisation began shortly after Elizabeth's death.

England in this era had some positive aspects that set it apart from contemporaneous continental European societies. Torture was rare, since the English legal system reserved torture only for capital crimes like treason [28] —though forms of corporal punishment, some of them extreme, were practised. The persecution of witches began inand hundreds were executed, although there was nothing like the frenzy on the Continent.

Elizabeth managed to moderate and quell the intense religious passions of the time. This was elizabethan period literature significant contrast to previous and succeeding eras of marked religious violence. Elizabeth said "I have no desire to make windows into mens' souls". Her desire to moderate the religious persecutions of previous Tudor reigns — the persecution of Catholics under Edward VI, and of Protestants under Mary I — appears to have had a moderating effect on English society.

Elizabeth, Protestant, but undogmatic one, [34] reinstated the Book of Common Prayer with modifications which made clear that the Church of England believed in the spiritual Real Presence of Christ in the Holy Communion but without a definition how in favor of leaving this a mystery, and she had the Black Rubric removed from the Articles of Faith: this had allowed kneeling to receive communion without implying that by doing so it meant the real and essential presence of Christ in the bread and wine: she believed it so, elizabethan period literature.

She was not able to get an unmarried clergy or the Protestant Holy Communion celebrated to look like a Mass, [35]. Elizabethan period literature Injunctions of forbade any doctrines that did not conform elizabethan period literature the teaching elizabethan period literature the Church Fathers and the Catholic Bishops.

The Queen's hostility to strict Calvinistic doctrines blocked the Radicals. Almost no original theological thought came out of the English Reformation: instead the Church relied on the Catholic Consensus of the first Four Ecumenical Councils. The preservation of many Catholic doctrines and practices was the cuckoos nest that eventually resulted in the formation of the Via Media during the 17th century. For a number of years refrained from persecuting Catholics because she was against Catholicism, not her Catholic subjects if they made no trouble, elizabethan period literature.

Inelizabethan period literature, Pope Pius V declared Elizabeth a heretic who was not the legitimate queen and that her subjects no longer owed her obedience. The pope sent Jesuits and seminarians to secretly evangelize and support Catholics. After several plots to overthrow her, Catholic clergy were mostly considered to be traitors, and were pursued aggressively in England. Often priests were tortured or executed after capture unless they cooperated with the English authorities.

People who publicly supported Catholicism were excluded from the professions; sometimes fined or imprisoned. Lacking a dominant genius or a formal structure for research the following century had both Sir Isaac Newton and the Royal Societythe Elizabethan era nonetheless saw significant scientific progress.

The astronomers Thomas Digges and Thomas Harriot made important contributions; William Gilbert published his seminal study of magnetism, De Magnete, elizabethan period literature, in Substantial advancements were made in the fields of cartography and surveying, elizabethan period literature. The eccentric but influential John Dee also merits mention. Much of this scientific and technological progress related to the practical skill of navigation.

English achievements in exploration were noteworthy in the Elizabethan era. Sir Francis Drake circumnavigated the globe between andand Martin Frobisher explored the Arctic, elizabethan period literature.

The first attempt at English settlement of the eastern seaboard of North America occurred in this era—the abortive colony at Roanoke Island in While Elizabethan England is not thought of as an age of technological innovation, some progress did occur. In Guilliam Boonen came from the Netherlands to be Elizabethan period literature Elizabeth's first coach-builder —thus introducing the new European invention of the spring-suspension coach to England, as a replacement for the litters and carts of an earlier transportation mode, elizabethan period literature.

Coaches quickly became as fashionable as sports cars in a later century; social critics, especially Puritan commentators, noted the "diverse great ladies" who rode "up and down the countryside" in their new coaches. Historians since the s have explored many facets of the social history, covering every class of the population. Although home to only a small part of the population the Tudor municipalities were overcrowded and unhygienic, elizabethan period literature.

Most towns were unpaved with poor public sanitation. There were no sewers or drains, and rubbish was simply abandoned in the street, elizabethan period literature. Animals such as rats thrived in these conditions. Elizabethan period literature larger towns and cities, such as London, common diseases arising from lack of sanitation included smallpoxmeaslesmalariaelizabethan period literature, typhusdiphtheriaScarlet feverand chickenpox.

Outbreaks elizabethan period literature the Black Death pandemic occurred in, and

 

Elizabethan literature - Wikipedia

 

elizabethan period literature

 

Dec 22,  · The concise history of English literature, the Elizabethan Period. Taroudant - “The concise history of English literature” is a delightful article that will be published in a series of short Author: Larbi Arbaoui. It goes without saying that the Elizabethan literature was some of the most awe inspiring arts ever done. William Shakespeare was alive and well during the Elizabethan era and this is the time period in which he produced his most popular works. Likewise, the art in general during this time period took huge strides from its previous years. Read this article to know about the main characteristics of the Elizabethan Literature, Elizabethan period summary, Elizabethan age literature. The Elizabethan period is generally regarded as the greatest in the history of English Literature. Historically, we note in this age, the tremendous impetus received sconltatos.ga: Malik.